finish FSK graph index changes
[proxmark3-svn] / client / cmddata.c
1 //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
2 // Copyright (C) 2010 iZsh <izsh at fail0verflow.com>
3 //
4 // This code is licensed to you under the terms of the GNU GPL, version 2 or,
5 // at your option, any later version. See the LICENSE.txt file for the text of
6 // the license.
7 //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
8 // Data and Graph commands
9 //-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
10
11 #include <stdio.h> // also included in util.h
12 #include <string.h> // also included in util.h
13 #include <inttypes.h>
14 #include <limits.h> // for CmdNorm INT_MIN && INT_MAX
15 #include "data.h" // also included in util.h
16 #include "cmddata.h"
17 #include "util.h"
18 #include "cmdmain.h"
19 #include "proxmark3.h"
20 #include "ui.h" // for show graph controls
21 #include "graph.h" // for graph data
22 #include "cmdparser.h"// already included in cmdmain.h
23 #include "usb_cmd.h" // already included in cmdmain.h and proxmark3.h
24 #include "lfdemod.h" // for demod code
25 #include "loclass/cipherutils.h" // for decimating samples in getsamples
26 #include "cmdlfem4x.h"// for em410x demod
27
28 uint8_t DemodBuffer[MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN];
29 uint8_t g_debugMode=0;
30 size_t DemodBufferLen=0;
31 int g_DemodStartIdx=0;
32 int g_DemodClock=0;
33
34 static int CmdHelp(const char *Cmd);
35
36 //set the demod buffer with given array of binary (one bit per byte)
37 //by marshmellow
38 void setDemodBuf(uint8_t *buff, size_t size, size_t startIdx)
39 {
40 if (buff == NULL)
41 return;
42
43 if ( size > MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN - startIdx)
44 size = MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN - startIdx;
45
46 size_t i = 0;
47 for (; i < size; i++){
48 DemodBuffer[i]=buff[startIdx++];
49 }
50 DemodBufferLen=size;
51 return;
52 }
53
54 bool getDemodBuf(uint8_t *buff, size_t *size) {
55 if (buff == NULL) return false;
56 if (size == NULL) return false;
57 if (*size == 0) return false;
58
59 *size = (*size > DemodBufferLen) ? DemodBufferLen : *size;
60
61 memcpy(buff, DemodBuffer, *size);
62 return true;
63 }
64
65 // option '1' to save DemodBuffer any other to restore
66 void save_restoreDB(uint8_t saveOpt)
67 {
68 static uint8_t SavedDB[MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN];
69 static size_t SavedDBlen;
70 static bool DB_Saved = false;
71 static int savedDemodStartIdx = 0;
72 static int savedDemodClock = 0;
73
74 if (saveOpt==1) { //save
75
76 memcpy(SavedDB, DemodBuffer, sizeof(DemodBuffer));
77 SavedDBlen = DemodBufferLen;
78 DB_Saved=true;
79 savedDemodStartIdx = g_DemodStartIdx;
80 savedDemodClock = g_DemodClock;
81 } else if (DB_Saved) { //restore
82 memcpy(DemodBuffer, SavedDB, sizeof(DemodBuffer));
83 DemodBufferLen = SavedDBlen;
84 g_DemodClock = savedDemodClock;
85 g_DemodStartIdx = savedDemodStartIdx;
86 }
87 return;
88 }
89
90 int CmdSetDebugMode(const char *Cmd)
91 {
92 int demod=0;
93 sscanf(Cmd, "%i", &demod);
94 g_debugMode=(uint8_t)demod;
95 return 1;
96 }
97
98 int usage_data_printdemodbuf(){
99 PrintAndLog("Usage: data printdemodbuffer x o <offset> l <length>");
100 PrintAndLog("Options: ");
101 PrintAndLog(" h This help");
102 PrintAndLog(" x output in hex (omit for binary output)");
103 PrintAndLog(" o <offset> enter offset in # of bits");
104 PrintAndLog(" l <length> enter length to print in # of bits or hex characters respectively");
105 return 0;
106 }
107
108 //by marshmellow
109 void printDemodBuff(void)
110 {
111 int bitLen = DemodBufferLen;
112 if (bitLen<1) {
113 PrintAndLog("no bits found in demod buffer");
114 return;
115 }
116 if (bitLen>512) bitLen=512; //max output to 512 bits if we have more - should be plenty
117
118 char *bin = sprint_bin_break(DemodBuffer,bitLen,16);
119 PrintAndLog("%s",bin);
120
121 return;
122 }
123
124 int CmdPrintDemodBuff(const char *Cmd)
125 {
126 char hex[512]={0x00};
127 bool hexMode = false;
128 bool errors = false;
129 uint32_t offset = 0; //could be size_t but no param_get16...
130 uint32_t length = 512;
131 char cmdp = 0;
132 while(param_getchar(Cmd, cmdp) != 0x00)
133 {
134 switch(param_getchar(Cmd, cmdp))
135 {
136 case 'h':
137 case 'H':
138 return usage_data_printdemodbuf();
139 case 'x':
140 case 'X':
141 hexMode = true;
142 cmdp++;
143 break;
144 case 'o':
145 case 'O':
146 offset = param_get32ex(Cmd, cmdp+1, 0, 10);
147 if (!offset) errors = true;
148 cmdp += 2;
149 break;
150 case 'l':
151 case 'L':
152 length = param_get32ex(Cmd, cmdp+1, 512, 10);
153 if (!length) errors = true;
154 cmdp += 2;
155 break;
156 default:
157 PrintAndLog("Unknown parameter '%c'", param_getchar(Cmd, cmdp));
158 errors = true;
159 break;
160 }
161 if(errors) break;
162 }
163 //Validations
164 if(errors) return usage_data_printdemodbuf();
165 length = (length > (DemodBufferLen-offset)) ? DemodBufferLen-offset : length;
166 int numBits = (length) & 0x00FFC; //make sure we don't exceed our string
167
168 if (hexMode){
169 char *buf = (char *) (DemodBuffer + offset);
170 numBits = (numBits > sizeof(hex)) ? sizeof(hex) : numBits;
171 numBits = binarraytohex(hex, buf, numBits);
172 if (numBits==0) return 0;
173 PrintAndLog("DemodBuffer: %s",hex);
174 } else {
175 PrintAndLog("DemodBuffer:\n%s", sprint_bin_break(DemodBuffer+offset,numBits,16));
176 }
177 return 1;
178 }
179
180 //by marshmellow
181 //this function strictly converts >1 to 1 and <1 to 0 for each sample in the graphbuffer
182 int CmdGetBitStream(const char *Cmd)
183 {
184 int i;
185 CmdHpf(Cmd);
186 for (i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; i++) {
187 if (GraphBuffer[i] >= 1) {
188 GraphBuffer[i] = 1;
189 } else {
190 GraphBuffer[i] = 0;
191 }
192 }
193 RepaintGraphWindow();
194 return 0;
195 }
196
197 //by marshmellow
198 //Cmd Args: Clock, invert, maxErr, maxLen as integers and amplify as char == 'a'
199 // (amp may not be needed anymore)
200 //verbose will print results and demoding messages
201 //emSearch will auto search for EM410x format in bitstream
202 //askType switches decode: ask/raw = 0, ask/manchester = 1
203 int ASKDemod_ext(const char *Cmd, bool verbose, bool emSearch, uint8_t askType, bool *stCheck) {
204 int invert=0;
205 int clk=0;
206 int maxErr=100;
207 int maxLen=0;
208 uint8_t askamp = 0;
209 char amp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
210 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN]={0};
211 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i %i %i %c", &clk, &invert, &maxErr, &maxLen, &amp);
212 if (!maxLen) maxLen = BIGBUF_SIZE;
213 if (invert != 0 && invert != 1) {
214 PrintAndLog("Invalid argument: %s", Cmd);
215 return 0;
216 }
217 if (clk==1){
218 invert=1;
219 clk=0;
220 }
221 size_t BitLen = getFromGraphBuf(BitStream);
222 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("DEBUG: Bitlen from grphbuff: %d",BitLen);
223 if (BitLen < 255) return 0;
224 if (maxLen < BitLen && maxLen != 0) BitLen = maxLen;
225 int foundclk = 0;
226 //amp before ST check
227 if (amp == 'a' || amp == 'A') {
228 askAmp(BitStream, BitLen);
229 }
230 bool st = false;
231 size_t ststart = 0, stend = 0;
232 if (*stCheck) st = DetectST(BitStream, &BitLen, &foundclk, &ststart, &stend);
233 *stCheck = st;
234 if (st) {
235 clk = (clk == 0) ? foundclk : clk;
236 CursorCPos = ststart;
237 CursorDPos = stend;
238 if (verbose || g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("\nFound Sequence Terminator - First one is shown by orange and blue graph markers");
239 //Graph ST trim (for testing)
240 //for (int i = 0; i < BitLen; i++) {
241 // GraphBuffer[i] = BitStream[i]-128;
242 //}
243 //RepaintGraphWindow();
244 }
245 int startIdx = 0;
246 int errCnt = askdemod_ext(BitStream, &BitLen, &clk, &invert, maxErr, askamp, askType, &startIdx);
247 if (errCnt<0 || BitLen<16){ //if fatal error (or -1)
248 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("DEBUG: no data found %d, errors:%d, bitlen:%d, clock:%d",errCnt,invert,BitLen,clk);
249 return 0;
250 }
251 if (errCnt > maxErr){
252 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("DEBUG: Too many errors found, errors:%d, bits:%d, clock:%d",errCnt, BitLen, clk);
253 return 0;
254 }
255 if (verbose || g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("\nUsing Clock:%d, Invert:%d, Bits Found:%d",clk,invert,BitLen);
256 //output
257 setDemodBuf(BitStream,BitLen,0);
258 setClockGrid(clk, startIdx);
259
260 if (verbose || g_debugMode){
261 if (errCnt>0) PrintAndLog("# Errors during Demoding (shown as 7 in bit stream): %d",errCnt);
262 if (askType) PrintAndLog("ASK/Manchester - Clock: %d - Decoded bitstream:",clk);
263 else PrintAndLog("ASK/Raw - Clock: %d - Decoded bitstream:",clk);
264 // Now output the bitstream to the scrollback by line of 16 bits
265 printDemodBuff();
266
267 }
268 uint64_t lo = 0;
269 uint32_t hi = 0;
270 if (emSearch){
271 AskEm410xDecode(true, &hi, &lo);
272 }
273 return 1;
274 }
275 int ASKDemod(const char *Cmd, bool verbose, bool emSearch, uint8_t askType) {
276 bool st = false;
277 return ASKDemod_ext(Cmd, verbose, emSearch, askType, &st);
278 }
279
280 //by marshmellow
281 //takes 5 arguments - clock, invert, maxErr, maxLen as integers and amplify as char == 'a'
282 //attempts to demodulate ask while decoding manchester
283 //prints binary found and saves in graphbuffer for further commands
284 int Cmdaskmandemod(const char *Cmd)
285 {
286 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
287 if (strlen(Cmd) > 45 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
288 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod am <s> [clock] <invert> [maxError] [maxLen] [amplify]");
289 PrintAndLog(" ['s'] optional, check for Sequence Terminator");
290 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect");
291 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 to invert output");
292 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100");
293 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum Samples to read], default = 32768 (512 bits at rf/64)");
294 PrintAndLog(" <amplify>, 'a' to attempt demod with ask amplification, default = no amp");
295 PrintAndLog("");
296 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod am = demod an ask/manchester tag from GraphBuffer");
297 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod am 32 = demod an ask/manchester tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32");
298 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod am 32 1 = demod an ask/manchester tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting data");
299 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod am 1 = demod an ask/manchester tag from GraphBuffer while inverting data");
300 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod am 64 1 0 = demod an ask/manchester tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors");
301 return 0;
302 }
303 bool st = true;
304 if (Cmd[0]=='s')
305 return ASKDemod_ext(Cmd++, true, false, 1, &st);
306 else if (Cmd[1] == 's')
307 return ASKDemod_ext(Cmd+=2, true, false, 1, &st);
308 else
309 return ASKDemod(Cmd, true, false, 1);
310 }
311
312 //by marshmellow
313 //manchester decode
314 //stricktly take 10 and 01 and convert to 0 and 1
315 int Cmdmandecoderaw(const char *Cmd)
316 {
317 int i =0;
318 int errCnt=0;
319 size_t size=0;
320 int invert=0;
321 int maxErr = 20;
322 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
323 if (strlen(Cmd) > 5 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
324 PrintAndLog("Usage: data manrawdecode [invert] [maxErr]");
325 PrintAndLog(" Takes 10 and 01 and converts to 0 and 1 respectively");
326 PrintAndLog(" --must have binary sequence in demodbuffer (run data askrawdemod first)");
327 PrintAndLog(" [invert] invert output");
328 PrintAndLog(" [maxErr] set number of errors allowed (default = 20)");
329 PrintAndLog("");
330 PrintAndLog(" sample: data manrawdecode = decode manchester bitstream from the demodbuffer");
331 return 0;
332 }
333 if (DemodBufferLen==0) return 0;
334 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN]={0};
335 int high=0,low=0;
336 for (;i<DemodBufferLen;++i){
337 if (DemodBuffer[i]>high) high=DemodBuffer[i];
338 else if(DemodBuffer[i]<low) low=DemodBuffer[i];
339 BitStream[i]=DemodBuffer[i];
340 }
341 if (high>7 || low <0 ){
342 PrintAndLog("Error: please raw demod the wave first then manchester raw decode");
343 return 0;
344 }
345
346 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i", &invert, &maxErr);
347 size=i;
348 uint8_t alignPos = 0;
349 errCnt=manrawdecode(BitStream, &size, invert, &alignPos);
350 if (errCnt>=maxErr){
351 PrintAndLog("Too many errors: %d",errCnt);
352 return 0;
353 }
354 PrintAndLog("Manchester Decoded - # errors:%d - data:",errCnt);
355 PrintAndLog("%s", sprint_bin_break(BitStream, size, 16));
356 if (errCnt==0){
357 uint64_t id = 0;
358 uint32_t hi = 0;
359 size_t idx=0;
360 if (Em410xDecode(BitStream, &size, &idx, &hi, &id)){
361 //need to adjust to set bitstream back to manchester encoded data
362 //setDemodBuf(BitStream, size, idx);
363
364 printEM410x(hi, id);
365 }
366 }
367 return 1;
368 }
369
370 //by marshmellow
371 //biphase decode
372 //take 01 or 10 = 0 and 11 or 00 = 1
373 //takes 2 arguments "offset" default = 0 if 1 it will shift the decode by one bit
374 // and "invert" default = 0 if 1 it will invert output
375 // the argument offset allows us to manually shift if the output is incorrect - [EDIT: now auto detects]
376 int CmdBiphaseDecodeRaw(const char *Cmd)
377 {
378 size_t size=0;
379 int offset=0, invert=0, maxErr=20, errCnt=0;
380 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
381 if (strlen(Cmd) > 3 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
382 PrintAndLog("Usage: data biphaserawdecode [offset] [invert] [maxErr]");
383 PrintAndLog(" Converts 10 or 01 to 1 and 11 or 00 to 0");
384 PrintAndLog(" --must have binary sequence in demodbuffer (run data askrawdemod first)");
385 PrintAndLog(" --invert for Conditional Dephase Encoding (CDP) AKA Differential Manchester");
386 PrintAndLog("");
387 PrintAndLog(" [offset <0|1>], set to 0 not to adjust start position or to 1 to adjust decode start position");
388 PrintAndLog(" [invert <0|1>], set to 1 to invert output");
389 PrintAndLog(" [maxErr int], set max errors tolerated - default=20");
390 PrintAndLog("");
391 PrintAndLog(" sample: data biphaserawdecode = decode biphase bitstream from the demodbuffer");
392 PrintAndLog(" sample: data biphaserawdecode 1 1 = decode biphase bitstream from the demodbuffer, set offset, and invert output");
393 return 0;
394 }
395 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i %i", &offset, &invert, &maxErr);
396 if (DemodBufferLen==0) {
397 PrintAndLog("DemodBuffer Empty - run 'data rawdemod ar' first");
398 return 0;
399 }
400 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_DEMOD_BUF_LEN]={0};
401 size = sizeof(BitStream);
402 if ( !getDemodBuf(BitStream, &size) ) return 0;
403 errCnt=BiphaseRawDecode(BitStream, &size, &offset, invert);
404 if (errCnt<0){
405 PrintAndLog("Error during decode:%d", errCnt);
406 return 0;
407 }
408 if (errCnt>maxErr){
409 PrintAndLog("Too many errors attempting to decode: %d",errCnt);
410 return 0;
411 }
412
413 if (errCnt>0){
414 PrintAndLog("# Errors found during Demod (shown as 7 in bit stream): %d",errCnt);
415 }
416
417 PrintAndLog("Biphase Decoded using offset: %d - # invert:%d - data:",offset,invert);
418 PrintAndLog("%s", sprint_bin_break(BitStream, size, 16));
419
420 if (offset) setDemodBuf(DemodBuffer,DemodBufferLen-offset, offset); //remove first bit from raw demod
421 setClockGrid(g_DemodClock, g_DemodStartIdx + g_DemodClock*offset/2);
422 return 1;
423 }
424
425 //by marshmellow
426 // - ASK Demod then Biphase decode GraphBuffer samples
427 int ASKbiphaseDemod(const char *Cmd, bool verbose)
428 {
429 //ask raw demod GraphBuffer first
430 int offset=0, clk=0, invert=0, maxErr=0;
431 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i %i %i", &offset, &clk, &invert, &maxErr);
432
433 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN];
434 size_t size = getFromGraphBuf(BitStream);
435 int startIdx = 0;
436 //invert here inverts the ask raw demoded bits which has no effect on the demod, but we need the pointer
437 int errCnt = askdemod_ext(BitStream, &size, &clk, &invert, maxErr, 0, 0, &startIdx);
438 if ( errCnt < 0 || errCnt > maxErr ) {
439 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("DEBUG: no data or error found %d, clock: %d", errCnt, clk);
440 return 0;
441 }
442
443 //attempt to Biphase decode BitStream
444 errCnt = BiphaseRawDecode(BitStream, &size, &offset, invert);
445 if (errCnt < 0){
446 if (g_debugMode || verbose) PrintAndLog("Error BiphaseRawDecode: %d", errCnt);
447 return 0;
448 }
449 if (errCnt > maxErr) {
450 if (g_debugMode || verbose) PrintAndLog("Error BiphaseRawDecode too many errors: %d", errCnt);
451 return 0;
452 }
453 //success set DemodBuffer and return
454 setDemodBuf(BitStream, size, 0);
455 setClockGrid(clk, startIdx + clk*offset/2);
456 if (g_debugMode || verbose){
457 PrintAndLog("Biphase Decoded using offset: %d - clock: %d - # errors:%d - data:",offset,clk,errCnt);
458 printDemodBuff();
459 }
460 return 1;
461 }
462 //by marshmellow - see ASKbiphaseDemod
463 int Cmdaskbiphdemod(const char *Cmd)
464 {
465 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
466 if (strlen(Cmd) > 25 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
467 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod ab [offset] [clock] <invert> [maxError] [maxLen] <amplify>");
468 PrintAndLog(" [offset], offset to begin biphase, default=0");
469 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect");
470 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 to invert output");
471 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100");
472 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum Samples to read], default = 32768 (512 bits at rf/64)");
473 PrintAndLog(" <amplify>, 'a' to attempt demod with ask amplification, default = no amp");
474 PrintAndLog(" NOTE: <invert> can be entered as second or third argument");
475 PrintAndLog(" NOTE: <amplify> can be entered as first, second or last argument");
476 PrintAndLog(" NOTE: any other arg must have previous args set to work");
477 PrintAndLog("");
478 PrintAndLog(" NOTE: --invert for Conditional Dephase Encoding (CDP) AKA Differential Manchester");
479 PrintAndLog("");
480 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod ab = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer");
481 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 0 a = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer, amplified");
482 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 1 32 = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer using an offset of 1 and a clock of RF/32");
483 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 0 32 1 = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting data");
484 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 0 1 = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer while inverting data");
485 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 0 64 1 0 = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors");
486 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab 0 64 1 0 0 a = demod an ask/biph tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors, and amp");
487 return 0;
488 }
489 return ASKbiphaseDemod(Cmd, true);
490 }
491
492 //by marshmellow - see ASKDemod
493 int Cmdaskrawdemod(const char *Cmd)
494 {
495 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
496 if (strlen(Cmd) > 35 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
497 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod ar [clock] <invert> [maxError] [maxLen] [amplify]");
498 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect");
499 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 to invert output");
500 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100");
501 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum Samples to read], default = 32768 (1024 bits at rf/64)");
502 PrintAndLog(" <amplify>, 'a' to attempt demod with ask amplification, default = no amp");
503 PrintAndLog("");
504 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod ar = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer");
505 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar a = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer, amplified");
506 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar 32 = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32");
507 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar 32 1 = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting data");
508 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar 1 = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer while inverting data");
509 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar 64 1 0 = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors");
510 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar 64 1 0 0 a = demod an ask tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors, and amp");
511 return 0;
512 }
513 return ASKDemod(Cmd, true, false, 0);
514 }
515
516 int AutoCorrelate(const int *in, int *out, size_t len, int window, bool SaveGrph, bool verbose)
517 {
518 static int CorrelBuffer[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN];
519 size_t Correlation = 0;
520 int maxSum = 0;
521 int lastMax = 0;
522 if (verbose) PrintAndLog("performing %d correlations", GraphTraceLen - window);
523 for (int i = 0; i < len - window; ++i) {
524 int sum = 0;
525 for (int j = 0; j < window; ++j) {
526 sum += (in[j]*in[i + j]) / 256;
527 }
528 CorrelBuffer[i] = sum;
529 if (sum >= maxSum-100 && sum <= maxSum+100) {
530 //another max
531 Correlation = i-lastMax;
532 lastMax = i;
533 if (sum > maxSum) maxSum = sum;
534 } else if (sum > maxSum) {
535 maxSum=sum;
536 lastMax = i;
537 }
538 }
539 if (Correlation==0) {
540 //try again with wider margin
541 for (int i = 0; i < len - window; i++) {
542 if (CorrelBuffer[i] >= maxSum-(maxSum*0.05) && CorrelBuffer[i] <= maxSum+(maxSum*0.05)) {
543 //another max
544 Correlation = i-lastMax;
545 lastMax = i;
546 }
547 }
548 }
549 if (verbose && Correlation > 0) PrintAndLog("Possible Correlation: %d samples",Correlation);
550
551 if (SaveGrph) {
552 //GraphTraceLen = GraphTraceLen - window;
553 memcpy(out, CorrelBuffer, len * sizeof(int));
554 RepaintGraphWindow();
555 }
556 return Correlation;
557 }
558
559 int usage_data_autocorr(void)
560 {
561 //print help
562 PrintAndLog("Usage: data autocorr [window] [g]");
563 PrintAndLog("Options: ");
564 PrintAndLog(" h This help");
565 PrintAndLog(" [window] window length for correlation - default = 4000");
566 PrintAndLog(" g save back to GraphBuffer (overwrite)");
567 return 0;
568 }
569
570 int CmdAutoCorr(const char *Cmd)
571 {
572 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
573 if (cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H')
574 return usage_data_autocorr();
575 int window = 4000; //set default
576 char grph=0;
577 bool updateGrph = false;
578 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %c", &window, &grph);
579
580 if (window >= GraphTraceLen) {
581 PrintAndLog("window must be smaller than trace (%d samples)",
582 GraphTraceLen);
583 return 0;
584 }
585 if (grph == 'g') updateGrph=true;
586 return AutoCorrelate(GraphBuffer, GraphBuffer, GraphTraceLen, window, updateGrph, true);
587 }
588
589 int CmdBitsamples(const char *Cmd)
590 {
591 int cnt = 0;
592 uint8_t got[12288];
593
594 GetFromBigBuf(got,sizeof(got),0);
595 WaitForResponse(CMD_ACK,NULL);
596
597 for (int j = 0; j < sizeof(got); j++) {
598 for (int k = 0; k < 8; k++) {
599 if(got[j] & (1 << (7 - k))) {
600 GraphBuffer[cnt++] = 1;
601 } else {
602 GraphBuffer[cnt++] = 0;
603 }
604 }
605 }
606 GraphTraceLen = cnt;
607 RepaintGraphWindow();
608 return 0;
609 }
610
611 int CmdBuffClear(const char *Cmd)
612 {
613 UsbCommand c = {CMD_BUFF_CLEAR};
614 SendCommand(&c);
615 ClearGraph(true);
616 return 0;
617 }
618
619 int CmdDec(const char *Cmd)
620 {
621 for (int i = 0; i < (GraphTraceLen / 2); ++i)
622 GraphBuffer[i] = GraphBuffer[i * 2];
623 GraphTraceLen /= 2;
624 PrintAndLog("decimated by 2");
625 RepaintGraphWindow();
626 return 0;
627 }
628 /**
629 * Undecimate - I'd call it 'interpolate', but we'll save that
630 * name until someone does an actual interpolation command, not just
631 * blindly repeating samples
632 * @param Cmd
633 * @return
634 */
635 int CmdUndec(const char *Cmd)
636 {
637 if(param_getchar(Cmd, 0) == 'h')
638 {
639 PrintAndLog("Usage: data undec [factor]");
640 PrintAndLog("This function performs un-decimation, by repeating each sample N times");
641 PrintAndLog("Options: ");
642 PrintAndLog(" h This help");
643 PrintAndLog(" factor The number of times to repeat each sample.[default:2]");
644 PrintAndLog("Example: 'data undec 3'");
645 return 0;
646 }
647
648 uint8_t factor = param_get8ex(Cmd, 0,2, 10);
649 //We have memory, don't we?
650 int swap[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN] = { 0 };
651 uint32_t g_index = 0, s_index = 0;
652 while(g_index < GraphTraceLen && s_index + factor < MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN)
653 {
654 int count = 0;
655 for(count = 0; count < factor && s_index + count < MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN; count++)
656 swap[s_index+count] = GraphBuffer[g_index];
657
658 s_index += count;
659 g_index++;
660 }
661
662 memcpy(GraphBuffer, swap, s_index * sizeof(int));
663 GraphTraceLen = s_index;
664 RepaintGraphWindow();
665 return 0;
666 }
667
668 //by marshmellow
669 //shift graph zero up or down based on input + or -
670 int CmdGraphShiftZero(const char *Cmd)
671 {
672
673 int shift=0;
674 //set options from parameters entered with the command
675 sscanf(Cmd, "%i", &shift);
676 int shiftedVal=0;
677 for(int i = 0; i<GraphTraceLen; i++){
678 shiftedVal=GraphBuffer[i]+shift;
679 if (shiftedVal>127)
680 shiftedVal=127;
681 else if (shiftedVal<-127)
682 shiftedVal=-127;
683 GraphBuffer[i]= shiftedVal;
684 }
685 CmdNorm("");
686 return 0;
687 }
688
689 int AskEdgeDetect(const int *in, int *out, int len, int threshold) {
690 int Last = 0;
691 for(int i = 1; i<len; i++) {
692 if (in[i]-in[i-1] >= threshold) //large jump up
693 Last = 127;
694 else if(in[i]-in[i-1] <= -1 * threshold) //large jump down
695 Last = -127;
696 out[i-1] = Last;
697 }
698 return 0;
699 }
700
701 //by marshmellow
702 //use large jumps in read samples to identify edges of waves and then amplify that wave to max
703 //similar to dirtheshold, threshold commands
704 //takes a threshold length which is the measured length between two samples then determines an edge
705 int CmdAskEdgeDetect(const char *Cmd)
706 {
707 int thresLen = 25;
708 int ans = 0;
709 sscanf(Cmd, "%i", &thresLen);
710
711 ans = AskEdgeDetect(GraphBuffer, GraphBuffer, GraphTraceLen, thresLen);
712 RepaintGraphWindow();
713 return ans;
714 }
715
716 /* Print our clock rate */
717 // uses data from graphbuffer
718 // adjusted to take char parameter for type of modulation to find the clock - by marshmellow.
719 int CmdDetectClockRate(const char *Cmd)
720 {
721 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
722 if (strlen(Cmd) > 6 || strlen(Cmd) == 0 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
723 PrintAndLog("Usage: data detectclock [modulation] <clock>");
724 PrintAndLog(" [modulation as char], specify the modulation type you want to detect the clock of");
725 PrintAndLog(" <clock> , specify the clock (optional - to get best start position only)");
726 PrintAndLog(" 'a' = ask, 'f' = fsk, 'n' = nrz/direct, 'p' = psk");
727 PrintAndLog("");
728 PrintAndLog(" sample: data detectclock a = detect the clock of an ask modulated wave in the GraphBuffer");
729 PrintAndLog(" data detectclock f = detect the clock of an fsk modulated wave in the GraphBuffer");
730 PrintAndLog(" data detectclock p = detect the clock of an psk modulated wave in the GraphBuffer");
731 PrintAndLog(" data detectclock n = detect the clock of an nrz/direct modulated wave in the GraphBuffer");
732 }
733 int ans=0;
734 if (cmdp == 'a'){
735 ans = GetAskClock(Cmd+1, true, false);
736 } else if (cmdp == 'f'){
737 ans = GetFskClock("", true, false);
738 } else if (cmdp == 'n'){
739 ans = GetNrzClock("", true, false);
740 } else if (cmdp == 'p'){
741 ans = GetPskClock("", true, false);
742 } else {
743 PrintAndLog ("Please specify a valid modulation to detect the clock of - see option h for help");
744 }
745 return ans;
746 }
747
748 char *GetFSKType(uint8_t fchigh, uint8_t fclow, uint8_t invert)
749 {
750 static char fType[8];
751 memset(fType, 0x00, 8);
752 char *fskType = fType;
753 if (fchigh==10 && fclow==8){
754 if (invert) //fsk2a
755 memcpy(fskType, "FSK2a", 5);
756 else //fsk2
757 memcpy(fskType, "FSK2", 4);
758 } else if (fchigh == 8 && fclow == 5) {
759 if (invert)
760 memcpy(fskType, "FSK1", 4);
761 else
762 memcpy(fskType, "FSK1a", 5);
763 } else {
764 memcpy(fskType, "FSK??", 5);
765 }
766 return fskType;
767 }
768
769 //by marshmellow
770 //fsk raw demod and print binary
771 //takes 4 arguments - Clock, invert, fchigh, fclow
772 //defaults: clock = 50, invert=1, fchigh=10, fclow=8 (RF/10 RF/8 (fsk2a))
773 int FSKrawDemod(const char *Cmd, bool verbose)
774 {
775 //raw fsk demod no manchester decoding no start bit finding just get binary from wave
776 uint8_t rfLen, invert, fchigh, fclow;
777 //set defaults
778 //set options from parameters entered with the command
779 rfLen = param_get8(Cmd, 0);
780 invert = param_get8(Cmd, 1);
781 fchigh = param_get8(Cmd, 2);
782 fclow = param_get8(Cmd, 3);
783
784 if (strlen(Cmd)>0 && strlen(Cmd)<=2) {
785 if (rfLen==1) {
786 invert = 1; //if invert option only is used
787 rfLen = 0;
788 }
789 }
790 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN]={0};
791 size_t BitLen = getFromGraphBuf(BitStream);
792 if (BitLen==0) return 0;
793 //get field clock lengths
794 uint16_t fcs=0;
795 if (!fchigh || !fclow) {
796 fcs = countFC(BitStream, BitLen, 1);
797 if (!fcs) {
798 fchigh = 10;
799 fclow = 8;
800 } else {
801 fchigh = (fcs >> 8) & 0x00FF;
802 fclow = fcs & 0x00FF;
803 }
804 }
805 //get bit clock length
806 if (!rfLen) {
807 int firstClockEdge = 0; //todo - align grid on graph with this...
808 rfLen = detectFSKClk(BitStream, BitLen, fchigh, fclow, &firstClockEdge);
809 if (!rfLen) rfLen = 50;
810 }
811 int startIdx = 0;
812 int size = fskdemod(BitStream, BitLen, rfLen, invert, fchigh, fclow, &startIdx);
813 if (size > 0) {
814 setDemodBuf(BitStream,size,0);
815 setClockGrid(rfLen, startIdx);
816
817 // Now output the bitstream to the scrollback by line of 16 bits
818 if (verbose || g_debugMode) {
819 PrintAndLog("\nUsing Clock:%u, invert:%u, fchigh:%u, fclow:%u", (unsigned int)rfLen, (unsigned int)invert, (unsigned int)fchigh, (unsigned int)fclow);
820 PrintAndLog("%s decoded bitstream:",GetFSKType(fchigh,fclow,invert));
821 printDemodBuff();
822 }
823
824 return 1;
825 } else {
826 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("no FSK data found");
827 }
828 return 0;
829 }
830
831 //by marshmellow
832 //fsk raw demod and print binary
833 //takes 4 arguments - Clock, invert, fchigh, fclow
834 //defaults: clock = 50, invert=1, fchigh=10, fclow=8 (RF/10 RF/8 (fsk2a))
835 int CmdFSKrawdemod(const char *Cmd)
836 {
837 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
838 if (strlen(Cmd) > 20 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
839 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod fs [clock] <invert> [fchigh] [fclow]");
840 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, omit for autodetect.");
841 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 for invert output, can be used even if the clock is omitted");
842 PrintAndLog(" [fchigh], larger field clock length, omit for autodetect");
843 PrintAndLog(" [fclow], small field clock length, omit for autodetect");
844 PrintAndLog("");
845 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod fs = demod an fsk tag from GraphBuffer using autodetect");
846 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 32 = demod an fsk tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32, autodetect fc");
847 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 1 = demod an fsk tag from GraphBuffer using autodetect, invert output");
848 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 32 1 = demod an fsk tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32, invert output, autodetect fc");
849 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 64 0 8 5 = demod an fsk1 RF/64 tag from GraphBuffer");
850 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 50 0 10 8 = demod an fsk2 RF/50 tag from GraphBuffer");
851 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs 50 1 10 8 = demod an fsk2a RF/50 tag from GraphBuffer");
852 return 0;
853 }
854 return FSKrawDemod(Cmd, true);
855 }
856
857 //by marshmellow
858 //attempt to psk1 demod graph buffer
859 int PSKDemod(const char *Cmd, bool verbose)
860 {
861 int invert=0;
862 int clk=0;
863 int maxErr=100;
864 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i %i", &clk, &invert, &maxErr);
865 if (clk==1){
866 invert=1;
867 clk=0;
868 }
869 if (invert != 0 && invert != 1) {
870 if (g_debugMode || verbose) PrintAndLog("Invalid argument: %s", Cmd);
871 return 0;
872 }
873 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN]={0};
874 size_t BitLen = getFromGraphBuf(BitStream);
875 if (BitLen==0) return 0;
876 int errCnt=0;
877 int startIdx = 0;
878 errCnt = pskRawDemod_ext(BitStream, &BitLen, &clk, &invert, &startIdx);
879 if (errCnt > maxErr){
880 if (g_debugMode || verbose) PrintAndLog("Too many errors found, clk: %d, invert: %d, numbits: %d, errCnt: %d",clk,invert,BitLen,errCnt);
881 return 0;
882 }
883 if (errCnt<0|| BitLen<16){ //throw away static - allow 1 and -1 (in case of threshold command first)
884 if (g_debugMode || verbose) PrintAndLog("no data found, clk: %d, invert: %d, numbits: %d, errCnt: %d",clk,invert,BitLen,errCnt);
885 return 0;
886 }
887 if (verbose || g_debugMode){
888 PrintAndLog("\nUsing Clock:%d, invert:%d, Bits Found:%d",clk,invert,BitLen);
889 if (errCnt>0){
890 PrintAndLog("# Errors during Demoding (shown as 7 in bit stream): %d",errCnt);
891 }
892 }
893 //prime demod buffer for output
894 setDemodBuf(BitStream,BitLen,0);
895 setClockGrid(clk, startIdx);
896
897 return 1;
898 }
899
900 // by marshmellow
901 // takes 3 arguments - clock, invert, maxErr as integers
902 // attempts to demodulate nrz only
903 // prints binary found and saves in demodbuffer for further commands
904 int NRZrawDemod(const char *Cmd, bool verbose)
905 {
906 int invert=0;
907 int clk=0;
908 int maxErr=100;
909 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i %i", &clk, &invert, &maxErr);
910 if (clk==1){
911 invert=1;
912 clk=0;
913 }
914 if (invert != 0 && invert != 1) {
915 PrintAndLog("Invalid argument: %s", Cmd);
916 return 0;
917 }
918 uint8_t BitStream[MAX_GRAPH_TRACE_LEN]={0};
919 size_t BitLen = getFromGraphBuf(BitStream);
920 if (BitLen==0) return 0;
921 int errCnt=0;
922 int clkStartIdx = 0;
923 errCnt = nrzRawDemod(BitStream, &BitLen, &clk, &invert, &clkStartIdx);
924 if (errCnt > maxErr){
925 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("Too many errors found, clk: %d, invert: %d, numbits: %d, errCnt: %d",clk,invert,BitLen,errCnt);
926 return 0;
927 }
928 if (errCnt<0 || BitLen<16){ //throw away static - allow 1 and -1 (in case of threshold command first)
929 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("no data found, clk: %d, invert: %d, numbits: %d, errCnt: %d",clk,invert,BitLen,errCnt);
930 return 0;
931 }
932 if (verbose || g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("Tried NRZ Demod using Clock: %d - invert: %d - Bits Found: %d",clk,invert,BitLen);
933 //prime demod buffer for output
934 setDemodBuf(BitStream,BitLen,0);
935 setClockGrid(clk, clkStartIdx);
936
937
938 if (errCnt>0 && (verbose || g_debugMode)) PrintAndLog("# Errors during Demoding (shown as 7 in bit stream): %d",errCnt);
939 if (verbose || g_debugMode) {
940 PrintAndLog("NRZ demoded bitstream:");
941 // Now output the bitstream to the scrollback by line of 16 bits
942 printDemodBuff();
943 }
944 return 1;
945 }
946
947 int CmdNRZrawDemod(const char *Cmd)
948 {
949 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
950 if (strlen(Cmd) > 16 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
951 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod nr [clock] <0|1> [maxError]");
952 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect.");
953 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 for invert output");
954 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100.");
955 PrintAndLog("");
956 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod nr = demod a nrz/direct tag from GraphBuffer");
957 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod nr 32 = demod a nrz/direct tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32");
958 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod nr 32 1 = demod a nrz/direct tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting data");
959 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod nr 1 = demod a nrz/direct tag from GraphBuffer while inverting data");
960 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod nr 64 1 0 = demod a nrz/direct tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors");
961 return 0;
962 }
963 return NRZrawDemod(Cmd, true);
964 }
965
966 // by marshmellow
967 // takes 3 arguments - clock, invert, maxErr as integers
968 // attempts to demodulate psk only
969 // prints binary found and saves in demodbuffer for further commands
970 int CmdPSK1rawDemod(const char *Cmd)
971 {
972 int ans;
973 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
974 if (strlen(Cmd) > 16 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
975 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod p1 [clock] <0|1> [maxError]");
976 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect.");
977 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 for invert output");
978 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100.");
979 PrintAndLog("");
980 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod p1 = demod a psk1 tag from GraphBuffer");
981 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p1 32 = demod a psk1 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32");
982 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p1 32 1 = demod a psk1 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting data");
983 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p1 1 = demod a psk1 tag from GraphBuffer while inverting data");
984 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p1 64 1 0 = demod a psk1 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting data and allowing 0 demod errors");
985 return 0;
986 }
987 ans = PSKDemod(Cmd, true);
988 //output
989 if (!ans){
990 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("Error demoding: %d",ans);
991 return 0;
992 }
993
994 PrintAndLog("PSK1 demoded bitstream:");
995 // Now output the bitstream to the scrollback by line of 16 bits
996 printDemodBuff();
997 return 1;
998 }
999
1000 // by marshmellow
1001 // takes same args as cmdpsk1rawdemod
1002 int CmdPSK2rawDemod(const char *Cmd)
1003 {
1004 int ans=0;
1005 char cmdp = param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
1006 if (strlen(Cmd) > 16 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H') {
1007 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod p2 [clock] <0|1> [maxError]");
1008 PrintAndLog(" [set clock as integer] optional, if not set, autodetect.");
1009 PrintAndLog(" <invert>, 1 for invert output");
1010 PrintAndLog(" [set maximum allowed errors], default = 100.");
1011 PrintAndLog("");
1012 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod p2 = demod a psk2 tag from GraphBuffer, autodetect clock");
1013 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p2 32 = demod a psk2 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32");
1014 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p2 32 1 = demod a psk2 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/32 and inverting output");
1015 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p2 1 = demod a psk2 tag from GraphBuffer, autodetect clock and invert output");
1016 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p2 64 1 0 = demod a psk2 tag from GraphBuffer using a clock of RF/64, inverting output and allowing 0 demod errors");
1017 return 0;
1018 }
1019 ans=PSKDemod(Cmd, true);
1020 if (!ans){
1021 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("Error demoding: %d",ans);
1022 return 0;
1023 }
1024 psk1TOpsk2(DemodBuffer, DemodBufferLen);
1025 PrintAndLog("PSK2 demoded bitstream:");
1026 // Now output the bitstream to the scrollback by line of 16 bits
1027 printDemodBuff();
1028 return 1;
1029 }
1030
1031 // by marshmellow - combines all raw demod functions into one menu command
1032 int CmdRawDemod(const char *Cmd)
1033 {
1034 char cmdp = Cmd[0]; //param_getchar(Cmd, 0);
1035
1036 if (strlen(Cmd) > 35 || cmdp == 'h' || cmdp == 'H' || strlen(Cmd)<2) {
1037 PrintAndLog("Usage: data rawdemod [modulation] <help>|<options>");
1038 PrintAndLog(" [modulation] as 2 char, 'ab' for ask/biphase, 'am' for ask/manchester, 'ar' for ask/raw, 'fs' for fsk, ...");
1039 PrintAndLog(" 'nr' for nrz/direct, 'p1' for psk1, 'p2' for psk2");
1040 PrintAndLog(" <help> as 'h', prints the help for the specific modulation");
1041 PrintAndLog(" <options> see specific modulation help for optional parameters");
1042 PrintAndLog("");
1043 PrintAndLog(" sample: data rawdemod fs h = print help specific to fsk demod");
1044 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod fs = demod GraphBuffer using: fsk - autodetect");
1045 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ab = demod GraphBuffer using: ask/biphase - autodetect");
1046 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod am = demod GraphBuffer using: ask/manchester - autodetect");
1047 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod ar = demod GraphBuffer using: ask/raw - autodetect");
1048 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod nr = demod GraphBuffer using: nrz/direct - autodetect");
1049 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p1 = demod GraphBuffer using: psk1 - autodetect");
1050 PrintAndLog(" : data rawdemod p2 = demod GraphBuffer using: psk2 - autodetect");
1051 return 0;
1052 }
1053 char cmdp2 = Cmd[1];
1054 int ans = 0;
1055 if (cmdp == 'f' && cmdp2 == 's'){
1056 ans = CmdFSKrawdemod(Cmd+2);
1057 } else if(cmdp == 'a' && cmdp2 == 'b'){
1058 ans = Cmdaskbiphdemod(Cmd+2);
1059 } else if(cmdp == 'a' && cmdp2 == 'm'){
1060 ans = Cmdaskmandemod(Cmd+2);
1061 } else if(cmdp == 'a' && cmdp2 == 'r'){
1062 ans = Cmdaskrawdemod(Cmd+2);
1063 } else if(cmdp == 'n' && cmdp2 == 'r'){
1064 ans = CmdNRZrawDemod(Cmd+2);
1065 } else if(cmdp == 'p' && cmdp2 == '1'){
1066 ans = CmdPSK1rawDemod(Cmd+2);
1067 } else if(cmdp == 'p' && cmdp2 == '2'){
1068 ans = CmdPSK2rawDemod(Cmd+2);
1069 } else {
1070 PrintAndLog("unknown modulation entered - see help ('h') for parameter structure");
1071 }
1072 return ans;
1073 }
1074
1075 void setClockGrid(int clk, int offset) {
1076 g_DemodStartIdx = offset;
1077 g_DemodClock = clk;
1078 if (g_debugMode) PrintAndLog("demodoffset %d, clk %d",offset,clk);
1079
1080 if (offset > clk) offset %= clk;
1081 if (offset < 0) offset += clk;
1082
1083 if (offset > GraphTraceLen || offset < 0) return;
1084 if (clk < 8 || clk > GraphTraceLen) {
1085 GridLocked = false;
1086 GridOffset = 0;
1087 PlotGridX = 0;
1088 PlotGridXdefault = 0;
1089 RepaintGraphWindow();
1090 } else {
1091 GridLocked = true;
1092 GridOffset = offset;
1093 PlotGridX = clk;
1094 PlotGridXdefault = clk;
1095 RepaintGraphWindow();
1096 }
1097 }
1098
1099 int CmdGrid(const char *Cmd)
1100 {
1101 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i", &PlotGridX, &PlotGridY);
1102 PlotGridXdefault= PlotGridX;
1103 PlotGridYdefault= PlotGridY;
1104 RepaintGraphWindow();
1105 return 0;
1106 }
1107
1108 int CmdSetGraphMarkers(const char *Cmd) {
1109 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i", &CursorCPos, &CursorDPos);
1110 RepaintGraphWindow();
1111 return 0;
1112 }
1113
1114 int CmdHexsamples(const char *Cmd)
1115 {
1116 int i, j;
1117 int requested = 0;
1118 int offset = 0;
1119 char string_buf[25];
1120 char* string_ptr = string_buf;
1121 uint8_t got[BIGBUF_SIZE];
1122
1123 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i", &requested, &offset);
1124
1125 /* if no args send something */
1126 if (requested == 0) {
1127 requested = 8;
1128 }
1129 if (offset + requested > sizeof(got)) {
1130 PrintAndLog("Tried to read past end of buffer, <bytes> + <offset> > %d", BIGBUF_SIZE);
1131 return 0;
1132 }
1133
1134 GetFromBigBuf(got,requested,offset);
1135 WaitForResponse(CMD_ACK,NULL);
1136
1137 i = 0;
1138 for (j = 0; j < requested; j++) {
1139 i++;
1140 string_ptr += sprintf(string_ptr, "%02x ", got[j]);
1141 if (i == 8) {
1142 *(string_ptr - 1) = '\0'; // remove the trailing space
1143 PrintAndLog("%s", string_buf);
1144 string_buf[0] = '\0';
1145 string_ptr = string_buf;
1146 i = 0;
1147 }
1148 if (j == requested - 1 && string_buf[0] != '\0') { // print any remaining bytes
1149 *(string_ptr - 1) = '\0';
1150 PrintAndLog("%s", string_buf);
1151 string_buf[0] = '\0';
1152 }
1153 }
1154 return 0;
1155 }
1156
1157 int CmdHide(const char *Cmd)
1158 {
1159 HideGraphWindow();
1160 return 0;
1161 }
1162
1163 //zero mean GraphBuffer
1164 int CmdHpf(const char *Cmd)
1165 {
1166 int i;
1167 int accum = 0;
1168
1169 for (i = 10; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i)
1170 accum += GraphBuffer[i];
1171 accum /= (GraphTraceLen - 10);
1172 for (i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i)
1173 GraphBuffer[i] -= accum;
1174
1175 RepaintGraphWindow();
1176 return 0;
1177 }
1178
1179 uint8_t getByte(uint8_t bits_per_sample, BitstreamIn* b)
1180 {
1181 int i;
1182 uint8_t val = 0;
1183 for(i =0 ; i < bits_per_sample; i++)
1184 {
1185 val |= (headBit(b) << (7-i));
1186 }
1187 return val;
1188 }
1189
1190 int getSamples(int n, bool silent)
1191 {
1192 //If we get all but the last byte in bigbuf,
1193 // we don't have to worry about remaining trash
1194 // in the last byte in case the bits-per-sample
1195 // does not line up on byte boundaries
1196
1197 uint8_t got[BIGBUF_SIZE-1] = { 0 };
1198
1199 if (n == 0 || n > sizeof(got))
1200 n = sizeof(got);
1201
1202 if (!silent) PrintAndLog("Reading %d bytes from device memory\n", n);
1203 GetFromBigBuf(got,n,0);
1204 if (!silent) PrintAndLog("Data fetched");
1205 UsbCommand response;
1206 WaitForResponse(CMD_ACK, &response);
1207 uint8_t bits_per_sample = 8;
1208
1209 //Old devices without this feature would send 0 at arg[0]
1210 if(response.arg[0] > 0)
1211 {
1212 sample_config *sc = (sample_config *) response.d.asBytes;
1213 if (!silent) PrintAndLog("Samples @ %d bits/smpl, decimation 1:%d ", sc->bits_per_sample
1214 , sc->decimation);
1215 bits_per_sample = sc->bits_per_sample;
1216 }
1217 if(bits_per_sample < 8)
1218 {
1219 if (!silent) PrintAndLog("Unpacking...");
1220 BitstreamIn bout = { got, bits_per_sample * n, 0};
1221 int j =0;
1222 for (j = 0; j * bits_per_sample < n * 8 && j < n; j++) {
1223 uint8_t sample = getByte(bits_per_sample, &bout);
1224 GraphBuffer[j] = ((int) sample )- 128;
1225 }
1226 GraphTraceLen = j;
1227 PrintAndLog("Unpacked %d samples" , j );
1228 }else
1229 {
1230 for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
1231 GraphBuffer[j] = ((int)got[j]) - 128;
1232 }
1233 GraphTraceLen = n;
1234 }
1235
1236 setClockGrid(0,0);
1237 RepaintGraphWindow();
1238 return 0;
1239 }
1240
1241 int CmdSamples(const char *Cmd)
1242 {
1243 int n = strtol(Cmd, NULL, 0);
1244 return getSamples(n, false);
1245 }
1246
1247 int CmdTuneSamples(const char *Cmd)
1248 {
1249 int timeout = 0, arg = FLAG_TUNE_ALL;
1250
1251 if(*Cmd == 'l') {
1252 arg = FLAG_TUNE_LF;
1253 } else if (*Cmd == 'h') {
1254 arg = FLAG_TUNE_HF;
1255 } else if (*Cmd != '\0') {
1256 PrintAndLog("use 'tune' or 'tune l' or 'tune h'");
1257 return 0;
1258 }
1259
1260 printf("\nMeasuring antenna characteristics, please wait...");
1261
1262 UsbCommand c = {CMD_MEASURE_ANTENNA_TUNING, {arg, 0, 0}};
1263 SendCommand(&c);
1264
1265 UsbCommand resp;
1266 while(!WaitForResponseTimeout(CMD_MEASURED_ANTENNA_TUNING,&resp,1000)) {
1267 timeout++;
1268 printf(".");
1269 if (timeout > 7) {
1270 PrintAndLog("\nNo response from Proxmark. Aborting...");
1271 return 1;
1272 }
1273 }
1274
1275 int peakv, peakf;
1276 int vLf125, vLf134, vHf;
1277 vLf125 = resp.arg[0] & 0xffff;
1278 vLf134 = resp.arg[0] >> 16;
1279 vHf = resp.arg[1] & 0xffff;;
1280 peakf = resp.arg[2] & 0xffff;
1281 peakv = resp.arg[2] >> 16;
1282 PrintAndLog("");
1283 PrintAndLog("# LF antenna: %5.2f V @ 125.00 kHz", vLf125/1000.0);
1284 PrintAndLog("# LF antenna: %5.2f V @ 134.00 kHz", vLf134/1000.0);
1285 PrintAndLog("# LF optimal: %5.2f V @%9.2f kHz", peakv/1000.0, 12000.0/(peakf+1));
1286 PrintAndLog("# HF antenna: %5.2f V @ 13.56 MHz", vHf/1000.0);
1287
1288 #define LF_UNUSABLE_V 2948 // was 2000. Changed due to bugfix in voltage measurements. LF results are now 47% higher.
1289 #define LF_MARGINAL_V 14739 // was 10000. Changed due to bugfix bug in voltage measurements. LF results are now 47% higher.
1290 #define HF_UNUSABLE_V 3167 // was 2000. Changed due to bugfix in voltage measurements. HF results are now 58% higher.
1291 #define HF_MARGINAL_V 7917 // was 5000. Changed due to bugfix in voltage measurements. HF results are now 58% higher.
1292
1293 if (peakv < LF_UNUSABLE_V)
1294 PrintAndLog("# Your LF antenna is unusable.");
1295 else if (peakv < LF_MARGINAL_V)
1296 PrintAndLog("# Your LF antenna is marginal.");
1297 if (vHf < HF_UNUSABLE_V)
1298 PrintAndLog("# Your HF antenna is unusable.");
1299 else if (vHf < HF_MARGINAL_V)
1300 PrintAndLog("# Your HF antenna is marginal.");
1301
1302 if (peakv >= LF_UNUSABLE_V) {
1303 for (int i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
1304 GraphBuffer[i] = resp.d.asBytes[i] - 128;
1305 }
1306 PrintAndLog("Displaying LF tuning graph. Divisor 89 is 134khz, 95 is 125khz.\n");
1307 PrintAndLog("\n");
1308 GraphTraceLen = 256;
1309 ShowGraphWindow();
1310 RepaintGraphWindow();
1311 }
1312
1313 return 0;
1314 }
1315
1316
1317 int CmdLoad(const char *Cmd)
1318 {
1319 char filename[FILE_PATH_SIZE] = {0x00};
1320 int len = 0;
1321
1322 len = strlen(Cmd);
1323 if (len > FILE_PATH_SIZE) len = FILE_PATH_SIZE;
1324 memcpy(filename, Cmd, len);
1325
1326 FILE *f = fopen(filename, "r");
1327 if (!f) {
1328 PrintAndLog("couldn't open '%s'", filename);
1329 return 0;
1330 }
1331
1332 GraphTraceLen = 0;
1333 char line[80];
1334 while (fgets(line, sizeof (line), f)) {
1335 GraphBuffer[GraphTraceLen] = atoi(line);
1336 GraphTraceLen++;
1337 }
1338 fclose(f);
1339 PrintAndLog("loaded %d samples", GraphTraceLen);
1340 setClockGrid(0,0);
1341 RepaintGraphWindow();
1342 return 0;
1343 }
1344
1345 int CmdLtrim(const char *Cmd)
1346 {
1347 int ds = atoi(Cmd);
1348 if (GraphTraceLen<=0) return 0;
1349 for (int i = ds; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i)
1350 GraphBuffer[i-ds] = GraphBuffer[i];
1351 GraphTraceLen -= ds;
1352
1353 RepaintGraphWindow();
1354 return 0;
1355 }
1356
1357 // trim graph to input argument length
1358 int CmdRtrim(const char *Cmd)
1359 {
1360 int ds = atoi(Cmd);
1361
1362 GraphTraceLen = ds;
1363
1364 RepaintGraphWindow();
1365 return 0;
1366 }
1367
1368 // trim graph (middle) piece
1369 int CmdMtrim(const char *Cmd) {
1370 int start = 0, stop = 0;
1371 sscanf(Cmd, "%i %i", &start, &stop);
1372
1373 if (start > GraphTraceLen || stop > GraphTraceLen || start > stop) return 0;
1374 start++; //leave start position sample
1375
1376 GraphTraceLen = stop - start;
1377 for (int i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; i++) {
1378 GraphBuffer[i] = GraphBuffer[start+i];
1379 }
1380 return 0;
1381 }
1382
1383
1384 int CmdNorm(const char *Cmd)
1385 {
1386 int i;
1387 int max = INT_MIN, min = INT_MAX;
1388
1389 for (i = 10; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i) {
1390 if (GraphBuffer[i] > max)
1391 max = GraphBuffer[i];
1392 if (GraphBuffer[i] < min)
1393 min = GraphBuffer[i];
1394 }
1395
1396 if (max != min) {
1397 for (i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i) {
1398 GraphBuffer[i] = (GraphBuffer[i] - ((max + min) / 2)) * 256 /
1399 (max - min);
1400 //marshmelow: adjusted *1000 to *256 to make +/- 128 so demod commands still work
1401 }
1402 }
1403 RepaintGraphWindow();
1404 return 0;
1405 }
1406
1407 int CmdPlot(const char *Cmd)
1408 {
1409 ShowGraphWindow();
1410 return 0;
1411 }
1412
1413 int CmdSave(const char *Cmd)
1414 {
1415 char filename[FILE_PATH_SIZE] = {0x00};
1416 int len = 0;
1417
1418 len = strlen(Cmd);
1419 if (len > FILE_PATH_SIZE) len = FILE_PATH_SIZE;
1420 memcpy(filename, Cmd, len);
1421
1422
1423 FILE *f = fopen(filename, "w");
1424 if(!f) {
1425 PrintAndLog("couldn't open '%s'", filename);
1426 return 0;
1427 }
1428 int i;
1429 for (i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; i++) {
1430 fprintf(f, "%d\n", GraphBuffer[i]);
1431 }
1432 fclose(f);
1433 PrintAndLog("saved to '%s'", Cmd);
1434 return 0;
1435 }
1436
1437 int CmdScale(const char *Cmd)
1438 {
1439 CursorScaleFactor = atoi(Cmd);
1440 if (CursorScaleFactor == 0) {
1441 PrintAndLog("bad, can't have zero scale");
1442 CursorScaleFactor = 1;
1443 }
1444 RepaintGraphWindow();
1445 return 0;
1446 }
1447
1448 int directionalThreshold(const int* in, int *out, size_t len, int8_t up, int8_t down)
1449 {
1450 int lastValue = in[0];
1451 out[0] = 0; // Will be changed at the end, but init 0 as we adjust to last samples value if no threshold kicks in.
1452
1453 for (int i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
1454 // Apply first threshold to samples heading up
1455 if (in[i] >= up && in[i] > lastValue)
1456 {
1457 lastValue = out[i]; // Buffer last value as we overwrite it.
1458 out[i] = 1;
1459 }
1460 // Apply second threshold to samples heading down
1461 else if (in[i] <= down && in[i] < lastValue)
1462 {
1463 lastValue = out[i]; // Buffer last value as we overwrite it.
1464 out[i] = -1;
1465 }
1466 else
1467 {
1468 lastValue = out[i]; // Buffer last value as we overwrite it.
1469 out[i] = out[i-1];
1470 }
1471 }
1472 out[0] = out[1]; // Align with first edited sample.
1473 return 0;
1474 }
1475
1476 int CmdDirectionalThreshold(const char *Cmd)
1477 {
1478 int8_t upThres = param_get8(Cmd, 0);
1479 int8_t downThres = param_get8(Cmd, 1);
1480
1481 printf("Applying Up Threshold: %d, Down Threshold: %d\n", upThres, downThres);
1482
1483 directionalThreshold(GraphBuffer, GraphBuffer,GraphTraceLen, upThres, downThres);
1484 RepaintGraphWindow();
1485 return 0;
1486 }
1487
1488 int CmdZerocrossings(const char *Cmd)
1489 {
1490 // Zero-crossings aren't meaningful unless the signal is zero-mean.
1491 CmdHpf("");
1492
1493 int sign = 1;
1494 int zc = 0;
1495 int lastZc = 0;
1496
1497 for (int i = 0; i < GraphTraceLen; ++i) {
1498 if (GraphBuffer[i] * sign >= 0) {
1499 // No change in sign, reproduce the previous sample count.
1500 zc++;
1501 GraphBuffer[i] = lastZc;
1502 } else {
1503 // Change in sign, reset the sample count.
1504 sign = -sign;
1505 GraphBuffer[i] = lastZc;
1506 if (sign > 0) {
1507 lastZc = zc;
1508 zc = 0;
1509 }
1510 }
1511 }
1512
1513 RepaintGraphWindow();
1514 return 0;
1515 }
1516
1517 int usage_data_bin2hex(){
1518 PrintAndLog("Usage: data bin2hex <binary_digits>");
1519 PrintAndLog(" This function will ignore all characters not 1 or 0 (but stop reading on whitespace)");
1520 return 0;
1521 }
1522
1523 /**
1524 * @brief Utility for conversion via cmdline.
1525 * @param Cmd
1526 * @return
1527 */
1528 int Cmdbin2hex(const char *Cmd)
1529 {
1530 int bg =0, en =0;
1531 if(param_getptr(Cmd, &bg, &en, 0))
1532 {
1533 return usage_data_bin2hex();
1534 }
1535 //Number of digits supplied as argument
1536 size_t length = en - bg +1;
1537 size_t bytelen = (length+7) / 8;
1538 uint8_t* arr = (uint8_t *) malloc(bytelen);
1539 memset(arr, 0, bytelen);
1540 BitstreamOut bout = { arr, 0, 0 };
1541
1542 for(; bg <= en ;bg++)
1543 {
1544 char c = Cmd[bg];
1545 if( c == '1') pushBit(&bout, 1);
1546 else if( c == '0') pushBit(&bout, 0);
1547 else PrintAndLog("Ignoring '%c'", c);
1548 }
1549
1550 if(bout.numbits % 8 != 0)
1551 {
1552 printf("[padded with %d zeroes]\n", 8-(bout.numbits % 8));
1553 }
1554
1555 //Uses printf instead of PrintAndLog since the latter
1556 // adds linebreaks to each printout - this way was more convenient since we don't have to
1557 // allocate a string and write to that first...
1558 for(size_t x = 0; x < bytelen ; x++)
1559 {
1560 printf("%02X", arr[x]);
1561 }
1562 printf("\n");
1563 free(arr);
1564 return 0;
1565 }
1566
1567 int usage_data_hex2bin() {
1568 PrintAndLog("Usage: data hex2bin <hex_digits>");
1569 PrintAndLog(" This function will ignore all non-hexadecimal characters (but stop reading on whitespace)");
1570 return 0;
1571
1572 }
1573
1574 int Cmdhex2bin(const char *Cmd)
1575 {
1576 int bg =0, en =0;
1577 if(param_getptr(Cmd, &bg, &en, 0))
1578 {
1579 return usage_data_hex2bin();
1580 }
1581
1582
1583 while(bg <= en )
1584 {
1585 char x = Cmd[bg++];
1586 // capitalize
1587 if (x >= 'a' && x <= 'f')
1588 x -= 32;
1589 // convert to numeric value
1590 if (x >= '0' && x <= '9')
1591 x -= '0';
1592 else if (x >= 'A' && x <= 'F')
1593 x -= 'A' - 10;
1594 else
1595 continue;
1596
1597 //Uses printf instead of PrintAndLog since the latter
1598 // adds linebreaks to each printout - this way was more convenient since we don't have to
1599 // allocate a string and write to that first...
1600
1601 for(int i= 0 ; i < 4 ; ++i)
1602 printf("%d",(x >> (3 - i)) & 1);
1603 }
1604 printf("\n");
1605
1606 return 0;
1607 }
1608
1609 static command_t CommandTable[] =
1610 {
1611 {"help", CmdHelp, 1, "This help"},
1612 {"askedgedetect", CmdAskEdgeDetect, 1, "[threshold] Adjust Graph for manual ask demod using the length of sample differences to detect the edge of a wave (use 20-45, def:25)"},
1613 {"autocorr", CmdAutoCorr, 1, "[window length] [g] -- Autocorrelation over window - g to save back to GraphBuffer (overwrite)"},
1614 {"biphaserawdecode",CmdBiphaseDecodeRaw,1, "[offset] [invert<0|1>] [maxErr] -- Biphase decode bin stream in DemodBuffer (offset = 0|1 bits to shift the decode start)"},
1615 {"bin2hex", Cmdbin2hex, 1, "bin2hex <digits> -- Converts binary to hexadecimal"},
1616 {"bitsamples", CmdBitsamples, 0, "Get raw samples as bitstring"},
1617 {"buffclear", CmdBuffClear, 1, "Clear sample buffer and graph window"},
1618 {"dec", CmdDec, 1, "Decimate samples"},
1619 {"detectclock", CmdDetectClockRate, 1, "[modulation] Detect clock rate of wave in GraphBuffer (options: 'a','f','n','p' for ask, fsk, nrz, psk respectively)"},
1620 {"getbitstream", CmdGetBitStream, 1, "Convert GraphBuffer's >=1 values to 1 and <1 to 0"},
1621 {"grid", CmdGrid, 1, "<x> <y> -- overlay grid on graph window, use zero value to turn off either"},
1622 {"hexsamples", CmdHexsamples, 0, "<bytes> [<offset>] -- Dump big buffer as hex bytes"},
1623 {"hex2bin", Cmdhex2bin, 1, "hex2bin <hexadecimal> -- Converts hexadecimal to binary"},
1624 {"hide", CmdHide, 1, "Hide graph window"},
1625 {"hpf", CmdHpf, 1, "Remove DC offset from trace"},
1626 {"load", CmdLoad, 1, "<filename> -- Load trace (to graph window"},
1627 {"ltrim", CmdLtrim, 1, "<samples> -- Trim samples from left of trace"},
1628 {"rtrim", CmdRtrim, 1, "<location to end trace> -- Trim samples from right of trace"},
1629 {"mtrim", CmdMtrim, 1, "<start> <stop> -- Trim out samples from the specified start to the specified stop"},
1630 {"manrawdecode", Cmdmandecoderaw, 1, "[invert] [maxErr] -- Manchester decode binary stream in DemodBuffer"},
1631 {"norm", CmdNorm, 1, "Normalize max/min to +/-128"},
1632 {"plot", CmdPlot, 1, "Show graph window (hit 'h' in window for keystroke help)"},
1633 {"printdemodbuffer",CmdPrintDemodBuff, 1, "[x] [o] <offset> [l] <length> -- print the data in the DemodBuffer - 'x' for hex output"},
1634 {"rawdemod", CmdRawDemod, 1, "[modulation] ... <options> -see help (h option) -- Demodulate the data in the GraphBuffer and output binary"},
1635 {"samples", CmdSamples, 0, "[512 - 40000] -- Get raw samples for graph window (GraphBuffer)"},
1636 {"save", CmdSave, 1, "<filename> -- Save trace (from graph window)"},
1637 {"setgraphmarkers", CmdSetGraphMarkers, 1, "[orange_marker] [blue_marker] (in graph window)"},
1638 {"scale", CmdScale, 1, "<int> -- Set cursor display scale"},
1639 {"setdebugmode", CmdSetDebugMode, 1, "<0|1|2> -- Turn on or off Debugging Level for lf demods"},
1640 {"shiftgraphzero", CmdGraphShiftZero, 1, "<shift> -- Shift 0 for Graphed wave + or - shift value"},
1641 {"dirthreshold", CmdDirectionalThreshold, 1, "<thres up> <thres down> -- Max rising higher up-thres/ Min falling lower down-thres, keep rest as prev."},
1642 {"tune", CmdTuneSamples, 0, "Get hw tune samples for graph window"},
1643 {"undec", CmdUndec, 1, "Un-decimate samples by 2"},
1644 {"zerocrossings", CmdZerocrossings, 1, "Count time between zero-crossings"},
1645 {NULL, NULL, 0, NULL}
1646 };
1647
1648 int CmdData(const char *Cmd)
1649 {
1650 CmdsParse(CommandTable, Cmd);
1651 return 0;
1652 }
1653
1654 int CmdHelp(const char *Cmd)
1655 {
1656 CmdsHelp(CommandTable);
1657 return 0;
1658 }
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