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21 <h1 id="project_title">Proxmark3</h1>
22 <h2 id="project_tagline">Proxmark 3</h2>
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25 <a class="zip_download_link" href="">Download this project as a .zip file</a>
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34 <p>NOTICE:
35 (2014-03-17)
36 Moving the repository from google code to GitHub is up for discussion!
37 Please check out the following thread and post your comments...
38 <a href=""></a>
39 Discussions will close on March 31st.</p>
41 <h1>
42 <a name="proxmark" class="anchor" href="#proxmark"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>Proxmark</h1>
44 <p>The Proxmark III is a device developed by Jonathan Westhues that enables sniffing, reading and cloning of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags. For my master thesis I wanted to look at the communication of Mifare Classic cards. Mifare Classic is used in many applications and is the most popular contactless card around. It is used in e-ticketing, public transport and access control. The higher-level protocol is kept secret by the manufacturer (NXP). I made an implementation of the ISO14443 type A standard for the Proxmark since Mifare is based on this communication standard.</p>
46 <p>After a lot of debugging and many noisy traces the Proxmark was ready for some real analysis. I focused on the Mifare Classic card and was happy to let the communication between card and reader appear on my screen. I could see the anticollision phase where the reader selects the card to communicate with. This was followed by an authentication and after that all communication was encrypted. The findings of this research are published on as A Practical Attack on the Mifare Classic</p>
48 <p>In December 2007 I saw the presentation of Karsten Nohl and Henryk Plotz where they showed how they reverse engineered the Mifare Classic chip. I was working on the same subject in Nijmegen. The Mifare system relied on security by obscurity and now the secrets are revealed there is no card-level security left. A video on youtube shows a demo that we gave on March 12th. It shows how we access a building with a cloned card.</p>
50 <h2>
51 <a name="checkout-the-repo" class="anchor" href="#checkout-the-repo"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>Checkout the repo...</h2>
53 <pre><code>$ cd your_repo_root/repo_name
54 $ git fetch origin
55 $ git checkout gh-pages
56 </code></pre>
58 <p>If you're using the GitHub for Mac, simply sync your repository and you'll see the new branch.</p>
60 <h1>
61 <a name="intro-2" class="anchor" href="#intro-2"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>INTRO 2</h1>
63 <p>This file contains enough software, logic (for the FPGA), and design
64 documentation for the hardware that you could, at least in theory,
65 do something useful with a proxmark3. It has commands to:</p>
67 <pre><code>* read any kind of 125 kHz unidirectional tag
68 * simulate any kind of 125 kHz unidirectional tag
69 </code></pre>
71 <p>(This is enough to perform all of the silly cloning attacks, like the
72 ones that I did at the Capitol in Sacramento, or anything involving
73 a Verichip. From a technical standpoint, these are not that exciting,
74 although the `software radio' architecture of the proxmark3 makes it
75 easy and fun to support new formats.)</p>
77 <p>As a bonus, I include some code to use the 13.56 MHz hardware, so you can:</p>
79 <pre><code>* do anything that a (medium-range) ISO 15693 reader could
80 * read an ISO 14443 tag, if you know the higher-layer protocol
81 * pretend to be an ISO 14443 tag, if you know the higher-layer protocol
82 * snoop on an ISO 14443 transaction
83 </code></pre>
85 <p>I am not actively developing any of this. I have other projects that
86 seem to be more useful.</p>
88 <h2>
89 <a name="using-the-package" class="anchor" href="#using-the-package"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>USING THE PACKAGE</h2>
91 <p>The software tools required to build include:</p>
93 <ul>
94 <li>cygwin or other unix-like tools for Windows</li>
95 <li>devkitPro (<a href=""></a>)</li>
96 <li>Xilinx's WebPack tools</li>
97 <li>Modelsim (for test only)</li>
98 <li>perl</li>
99 </ul><p>When installing devkitPro, you only need to install the compiler itself. Additional
100 support libraries are not required.</p>
102 <p>Documentation is minimal, but see the doc/ directory for what exists. A
103 previous familiarity with the ARM, with digital signal processing,
104 and with embedded programming in general is assumed.</p>
106 <p>The device is used through a specialized command line interface; for
107 example, to clone a Verichip, you might type:</p>
109 <pre><code>loread ; this reads the tag, and stores the
110 ; raw samples in memory on the ARM
112 losamples ; then we download the samples to
113 ; the PC
115 vchdemod clone ; demodulate the ID, and then put it
116 ; back in a format that we can replay
118 losim ; and then replay it
119 </code></pre>
121 <p>To read an ISO 15693 tag, you might type:</p>
123 <pre><code>hiread ; read the tag; this involves sending a
124 ; particular command, and then getting
125 ; the response (which is stored as raw
126 ; samples in memory on the ARM)
128 hisamples ; then download those samples to the PC
130 hi15demod ; and demod them to bits (and check the
131 ; CRC etc. at the same time)
132 </code></pre>
134 <p>Notice that in both cases the signal processing mostly happened on the PC
135 side; that is of course not practical for a real reader, but it is easier
136 to initially write your code and debug on the PC side than on the ARM. As
137 long as you use integer math (and I do), it's trivial to port it over
138 when you're done.</p>
140 <p>The USB driver and bootloader are documented (and available separately
141 for download, if you wish to use them in another project) at</p>
143 <pre><code>
144 </code></pre>
146 <h2>
147 <a name="obtaining-hardware" class="anchor" href="#obtaining-hardware"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>OBTAINING HARDWARE:</h2>
149 <p>Most of the ultra-low-volume contract assemblers that have sprung up
150 (Screaming Circuits, the various cheap Asian suppliers, etc.) could put
151 something like this together with a reasonable yield. A run of around
152 a dozen units is probably cost-effective. The BOM includes (possibly-
153 outdated) component pricing, and everything is available from Digikey
154 and the usual distributors.</p>
156 <p>If you've never assembled a modern circuit board by hand, then this is
157 not a good place to start. Some of the components (e.g. the crystals)
158 must not be assembled with a soldering iron, and require hot air.</p>
160 <p>The schematics are included; the component values given are not
161 necessarily correct for all situations, but it should be possible to do
162 nearly anything you would want with appropriate population options.</p>
164 <p>The printed circuit board artwork is also available, as Gerbers and an
165 Excellon drill file.</p>
167 <h2>
168 <a name="future-plans-enhancements-that-you-could-make" class="anchor" href="#future-plans-enhancements-that-you-could-make"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>FUTURE PLANS, ENHANCEMENTS THAT YOU COULD MAKE:</h2>
170 <p>At some point I should write software involving a proper real-time
171 operating system for the ARM. I would then provide interrupt-driven
172 drivers for many of the peripherals that are polled now (the USB,
173 the data stream from the FPGA), which would make it easier to develop
174 complex applications.</p>
176 <p>It would not be all that hard to implement the ISO 15693 reader properly
177 (with anticollision, all the commands supported, and so on)--the signal
178 processing is already written, so it is all straightforward applications
179 work.</p>
181 <p>I have basic support for ISO 14443 as well: a sniffer, a simulated
182 tag, and a reader. It won't do anything useful unless you fill in the
183 high-layer protocol.</p>
185 <p>Nicer (i.e., closer-to-optimal) implementations of all kinds of signal
186 processing would be useful as well.</p>
188 <p>A practical implementation of the learning-the-tag's-ID-from-what-the-
189 reader-broadcasts-during-anticollision attacks would be relatively
190 straightforward. This would involve some signal processing on the FPGA,
191 but not much else after that.</p>
193 <p>It would be neat to write a driver that could stream samples from the A/Ds
194 over USB to the PC, using the full available bandwidth of USB. I am not
195 yet sure what that would be good for, but surely something. This would
196 require a kernel-mode driver under Windows, though, which is more work.</p>
198 <h2>
199 <a name="licensing" class="anchor" href="#licensing"><span class="octicon octicon-link"></span></a>LICENSING:</h2>
201 <p>This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
202 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
203 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
204 (at your option) any later version.</p>
206 <p>This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
207 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
209 GNU General Public License for more details.</p>
211 <p>You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
212 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
213 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA</p>
215 <p>Jonathan Westhues
216 user jwesthues, at host</p>
218 <p>May 2007, Cambridge MA</p>
219 </section>
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