]> git.zerfleddert.de Git - m1-debian/summary
descriptionScripts to bootstrap Debian on Apple m1 machines.
ownerThomas Glanzmann
last changeSun, 21 Jul 2024 07:08:41 +0000 (09:08 +0200)

This pages explains how to install Debian on Apple Silicon machines.


The USB-A Port on the Mac Mini will not work in u-boot and grub. The two additional USB-3 ports on the iMac 4 port model don't work in u-boot, grub and Linux. In order to install Linux on a FileVault-enabled Mac run the installer from Recovery open Disk Utility > Expanding "Macintosh HD" > Selecting locked volume > click "Mount". Debian does not include the choosen EFI patch. As a result it will always pick the first ESP partition. This can be problematic if you're using multiple ESP partitions for example when having multiple Linux and BSD installations.


If you don't want to use the prebuild artefacts, you can build them yourself using the following scripts:

    - prepare_rust.sh - Prepares a rust installation suitable for kernel compilation
    - m1n1_uboot_kernel.sh - Builds m1n1, u-boot and the kernel including gpu support.
    - mesa.sh - Creates mesa packages
    - bootstrap.sh - Creates Debian root and live filesystem
    - meta.sh - Meta package which makes sure that we always get latest and greatest kernel.

Asahi installer

Video Recording


Video Recording

In order to format the usb stick under Macos, open the disk utility, right-click on the usb stick (usually the lowest device in the list) and select erase. Choose the following options:

    Name: LIVE
    Format: MS-DOS (FAT)
    Scheme: Master Boot Record

Than open a terminal, and run the following commands:

    sudo su -
    cd /Volumes/LIVE
    curl -sL https://tg.st/u/asahi-debian-live.tar | tar -xf -


Why has there been no kernel update?

For Debian stable I'm currently unable to update the kernel due to the fact that the kernel requires new mesa packages and the new mesa package needs too many dependencies which are not in Debian stable and I'm not willing to add that many new packages. So I recommend that if you want the latest asahi kernel, mesa, sound and other packages, switch to testing and use Thomas Renards packages for testing. https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Bananas

How to enable spakers?

Currently speakers are only supported on M1 air. Install the necessary packages:

    apt update
    apt upgrade -y
    apt dist-upgrade -y
    apt install -y alsa-ucm-conf-asahi speakersafetyd

After the reboot I need to restart the speakersafetyd in order to hear sound out of the speakers:

    sudo systemctl restart speakersafetyd

Does it work on M2?

Yes, M3 is not yet supported.

Are you still maintaining this?

Yes, I do and will continue doing this until there is an official Debian installer.

If I install Debian, will it be easy to update the Asahi work as it develops?

Yes, long answer below.

To update the kernel to the lastest "stable" asahi branch you need to run as root:

    apt update
    apt upgrade

For installations before 2022-12-12, see https://thomas.glanzmann.de/asahi/README.txt

Later it might be necessary to upgrade the stub partion in order to support the GPU code. As soon as that happens, I'll add the instructions and a video in order to do so, but short version is:

    - Backup /boot/efi/EFI
    - Delete the old stub and efi/esp partition
    - Rerun the asahi installer with m1n1+u-boot option
    - Put the /boot/efi/EFI back

So, you never need to reinstall Debian. Kernel updates are easy, stub updates are a little bit more cumbersome but also seldom.

How do I compile zfs on apple silicon debian?

3 days ago Thomas Glanzmannfaq += mesa dependencies issues master
2023-12-31 Thomas GlanzmannNew command
2023-12-20 Thomas Glanzmannmake mesa build again; Thanks to Thomas Renard to figur...
2023-12-20 Thomas Glanzmannbump versions
2023-12-17 Thomas Glanzmannmore kernel config options
2023-11-12 Thomas Glanzmanndefault rustup version no longer needs to be specified
2023-11-12 Thomas Glanzmannadd faq about sound
2023-11-12 Thomas Glanzmannadd build script for speakersafeteyd
2023-11-12 Thomas Glanzmannbump versions
2023-11-05 Thomas Glanzmannuse Debian stable as image
2023-11-05 Thomas Glanzmannbump supported firmware
2023-10-31 Thomas Glanzmannanother faq
2023-10-14 Thomas Glanzmanngit clean m1n1 and u-boot as well
2023-10-13 Thomas Glanzmannbump version
2023-10-12 Thomas Glanzmannbump version
2023-10-12 Thomas Glanzmannfix typo
3 days ago master
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